Ph.D of law, Representative of the Polish Senate

In 1990 Chairman of the largest political parliamentary Caucus of the Democratic Left. From 1992 to 1993 Member of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. From 1995 to 1996 Chairman of the Constitutional Committee of the National Assembly. In 1996 for one year served as the Prime Minister of Poland, who negotiated Polish membership to NATO and reformed the structure of the government. From 2001 to 2005 Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 2005 the Speaker of the lower chamber of the Polish parliament. From 2007 to present independent Senator in the Polish parliament as well as member of numerous parliamentary committees.